Candidates and Campaigns

She's the Candidate! A Woman for President

by Ruth B. Mandel
Book chapter in Women and Leadership: The State of Play and Strategies for Change, Eds. Barbara Kellerman and Deborah L. Rhode 
Jossey-Bass J-B Warren Bennis Series, 2007

Women and Leadership brings together in one comprehensive volume preeminent scholars from a range of disciplines to address the challenges involving women and leadership. The experts explore when and how women exercise power and what stands in their way, including current thinking on the perils of stereotypes, the importance of leadership style, gender differences in the decision to seek leadership roles, lessons from women leaders, “opt out” patterns and the need for flexible career paths, global inequalities and initiatives, and strategies that get women to the top. Order the book.

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Federal Executive

Do Parties Know that ‘Women Win’? Party Leader Beliefs about Women’s Electoral Chances

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Politics & Gender 2006 (December)

In an analysis of state legislative election results, the author finds few gender differences in candidates' vote share and success rates—two widely used measures of the status of women candidates. Yet many party leaders report that one gender has an electoral advantage. These party leader perceptions are related to the objective measures of women's electoral success to some extent. However, most analyses reveal a gap between elite perceptions and objective measures of women's status as candidates. This disjuncture suggests that scholars may have overestimated the extent of party leader and voter support for women. 

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties

Where Women Run: Gender and Party in the American States

by Kira Sanbonmatsu 
University of Michigan Press, 2006, 264 pages

Drawing on surveys and case studies of party leaders and legislators in six states, the author analyzes the links between parties and representation, exposing the mechanism by which parties’ informal recruitment practices shape who runs – or doesn’t run – for political office in the United States. 

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 1st Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2005 First Edition, 240 pages 

Gender and Elections offers a systematic, lively, multi-faceted account of the role of gender in the electoral process through the 2004 elections. This volume strikes a balance between highlighting the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2004 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. 

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

State Elections: Where Do Women Run? Where Do Women Win?

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 1st Edition, Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2005 First Edition, 240 pages 

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns

‘She Brought Only a Skirt:’ Gender Bias in Newspaper Coverage of Elizabeth Dole’s Campaign for the Republican Nomination

by Caroline Heldman , Susan J. Carroll & Stephanie Olson
Political Communication 22:3 (2005)

This article examines differences in print media coverage of Elizabeth Dole and five other Republican contenders for the presidential nomination in 1999. Findings indicate that Dole received a differential amount and type of print media coverage that was decidedly gendered and may have hindered her candidacy. Journalists also repeatedly framed Dole as the “first woman” to be a serious presidential candidate and focused on her gender more than any other aspect of her candidacy, suggesting implicitly, if not explicitly, that she was a novelty in the race rather than a strong contender with a good chance of winning.

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Federal Executive

Democrats, Republicans, and the Politics of Women’s Place

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
University of Michigan Press, 2004, 328 pages 

This comprehensive study of gender equality debates in the party system from 1968 to 2000 reveals the impact that these changes have had on the political parties. It brings new theory, data, and analyses to bear on the questions of party politics, electoral realignment, and the women's movement.  

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties

Gender-Related Political Knowledge and the Descriptive Representation of Women

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Political Behavior, 2003 (December)

This study finds that political knowledge of one kind--knowledge about the actual level of women's representation--is related to support for having more women in office. Individuals who underestimate the percentage of women in office are more likely than individuals who know the correct percentage to support increasing women's representation. Meanwhile, individuals who overestimate the percentage of women in office are less likely to support increasing women's representation. Ironically, women are more likely than men to overestimate the presence of women in office. 

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Civic and Political Activism
Congress

"Political Knowledge and Gender Stereotypes"

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
American Politics Research, 2003 (November) 

This study uses original data to investigate the individual-level determinants of voters’ political gender stereotypes. The author finds that beliefs about men’s emotional suitability for politics predict voter stereotypes about the ability of politicians to handle issues, whereas political knowledge predicts voter stereotypes about politicians’ issue positions. Therefore, whereas some political gender stereotypes can primarily be explained by beliefs about the traits of men and women in general, other stereotypes are more related to knowledge about politics. This study suggests that whereas some political gender stereotypes may change if differences in the behavior of men and women politicians narrow, other stereotypes may be more enduring and less susceptible to change.

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Women Voters and the Gender Gap

Candidate Recruitment and Women's Election to the State Legislatures

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2003, 47 pages

This report points out that where women run is a critical but overlooked question in studies on women’s successes in running for office. The report finds that candidate emergence and recruitment differs across states. To varying degrees, party recruitment, beliefs about women’s electability, interest groups, and the presence of women legislators, women leaders, and women’s organizations in a state all play a role in the likelihood of a woman running for the legislature.

Report
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties

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