State Legislatures

Facts

Women in State Legislatures 

State by state listing and ranking of numbers and percentages of women in state legislative office.


Women in State Legislatures 1975-2014

State by state listing of numbers and percentages of women elected to state legislatures for 1975 through 2014.


Fact Sheet Archive on Women in State Legislatures by Year (1975-2014)

Women Candidates and Winners in State Legislative Races - Historical Summary

Year-by-Year Candidates and Election Results(1996-2014)

Research

Voices. Votes. Leadership. The Status of Black Women in American Politics 2015

By the Center for American Women and Politics for Higher Heights Leadership Fund, 2015
Authored by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D, Assistant Research Professor, Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University

This comprehensive report provides a historical outline of Black women’s struggle for political representation. It discusses the current landscape of political leadership for Black women across the country and across levels of office, their growing political influence, and the outlook for Black women's participation in the 2016 elections. It demonstrates the need for greater engagement, recruitment, and inclusion of Black women in politics and government.

Report
Research
Women of Color in Politics
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature
Local

The Status of Black Women in American Politics 2014

By the Center for American Women and Politics for Higher Heights Leadership Fund, 2014
Authored by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D, Assistant Research Professor, Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University

This comprehensive report provides a historical outline of black women’s struggle for political representation and discusses the current landscape of political leadership for black women across the country as well as their growing political influence. It demonstrates the need for greater engagement, recruitment, and inclusion of black women in politics and government.

Report
Research
Women of Color in Politics
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature
Local

Women’s Election to Office in the Fifty States: Opportunities and Challenges

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics,
Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, pp. 265-287.

Discussion of the barriers and opportunities women face in seeking state legislative and statewide executive office and the differences across states in women's officeholding. Party is a key factor in understanding women's candidacies and women's representation. 

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 3rd Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, 287 pages 

The third edition of Gender and Elections highlights the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2012 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, presidential and vice-presidential candidacies, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the political involvement of Latinas, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. Earlier editions (First Edition 2006, Second Edition 2010) provide similar analysis for the 2004 and 2008 elections.

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

More Women Can Run: Gender and Pathways to the State Legislatures

by Susan Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu
Oxford University Press, September 2013, 176 pages

Analyzing nationwide surveys of state legislators conducted by CAWP, More Women Can Run challenges assumptions of a single model of candidate emergence with a relationally embedded model of candidacy. It reorients research on women's election to office and offers strategies for political practitioners concerned about women's political equality. Video of a book talk given by Carroll and Sanbonmatsu available here

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
State Legislature

Women in State Government: Historical Patterns, Recent Trends, Future Prospects

by Susan J. Carroll 
Chapter in The Book of the States, edited by The Council of State Governments, 2013

The movement of women into state-level offices has slowed in recent years after several decades of gains, and following the 2012 elections, the numbers of women in both state legislative and executive branch offices increased only slightly. Efforts to actively recruit women for elected and appointed positions will be critical in determining what the future holds for women in state government.

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Preparedness Meets Opportunity: Women's Increased Representation in the New Jersey Legislature

by Susan Carroll and Kelly Dittmar
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 
July 2012, 40 pages

This paper examines the factors that account for the rapid rise in the numbers of women legislators in New Jersey, focusing primarily on the time period from 2004 through 2011. Central to the analysis is the question of what it would take to bring about enduring change in a political system characterized by a strong, male-dominated party system like that found in New Jersey.

Report
New Jersey
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Political Parties
State Legislature

Women’s Pathways to America’s State Legislatures

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Scholars Strategy Network Key Findings

Analysis of results from an unprecedented nationwide survey of state legislators conducted in 2008 by the Center for American Women and Politics at the Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University.

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
State Legislature

Women in State Government: Past, Present, Future

by Susan J. Carroll
Chapter in The Book of States, edited by the Council of State Governments, 2011

In recent years, the movement of women into state-level offices has slowed following several decades of gains. Following the 2010 elections, the number of women in both state legislative and statewide elective office declined. Efforts to actively recruit women for elective and appointive positions will be critical in determining what the future holds for women in state government.

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Can More Women Run? Reevaluating Women’s Election to the State Legislatures

by Susan J. Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu
Paper presented at the 2010 American Political Science Association annual meeting

Do men and women take similar or different paths to public office? This paper examines the occupational and educational backgrounds, family situations, and prior political experiences of women state legislators and their male counterparts. 

Conference Paper
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
State Legislature

Pages