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Women candidates and their campaigns: the latest info, trends and historical context.

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Research


Women as Candidates / Elections

CAWP research focusing on women as candidates and the impact of gender on elections includes:

 

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics
Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2014 Third Edition, 287 pages
The third edition of Gender and Elections offers a systematic, lively, and multifaceted account of the role of gender in the electoral process through the 2012 elections. This timely yet enduring volume strikes a balance between highlighting the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2012 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, presidential and vice-presidential candidacies, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the political involvement of Latinas, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. Without question, Gender and Elections is the most comprehensive, reliable, and trustworthy resource on the role of gender in U.S. electoral politics. Order from Amazon.com and a percentage of the profits from the sale goes to CAWP.

Poised to Run: Women's Pathways to the State Legislatures
Kira Sanbonmatsu, Susan J. Carroll, Debbie Walsh
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2009, 31 pages
Poised to Run: Women's Pathways to the State Legislatures presents the initial findings of a 2008 CAWP study that asked women and men in state legislatures about their routes to elective office. The research shows that:

  • women need to be recruited
  • political parties matter
  • organizations help women run
  • more women can run
  • resources are important.

This research was made possible by the generous support of a Leadership Matching Grant from the Barbara Lee Family Foundation, Project Grants from the Susie Tompkins Buell Foundation and Wendy Mackenzie and other generous donors.

She's the Candidate! A Woman for President
Ruth B. Mandel
Book chapter in Women and Leadership: The State of Play and Strategies for Change, Eds. Barbara Kellerman and Deborah L. Rhode
Jossey-Bass J-B Warren Bennis Series, 2007, 528 pages
Women and Leadership brings together in one comprehensive volume preeminent scholars from a range of disciplines to address the challenges involving women and leadership. The experts explore when and how women exercise power and what stands in their way, including current thinking on the perils of stereotypes, the importance of leadership style, gender differences in the decision to seek leadership roles, lessons from women leaders, “opt out” patterns and the need for flexible career paths, global inequalities and initiatives, and strategies that get women to the top. The full book is available from Amazon - order through this link and a percentage of the profits from the sale goes to CAWP.

Where Women Run: Gender and Party in the American States
Kira Sanbonmatsu
University of Michigan Press, 2006, 264 pages
Why are certain states more likely to have female candidates and legislators? Would strengthening political parties alter the situation? These questions are considered in Where Women Run. Drawing on surveys and case studies of party leaders and legislators in six states, the author analyzes the links between parties and representation, exposing the mechanism by which parties’ informal recruitment practices shape who runs – or doesn’t run – for political office in the United States. Order from Amazon and a percentage of the profits from the sale goes to CAWP.

Democrats, Republicans, and the Politics of Women’s Place
Kira Sanbonmatsu
University of Michigan Press, 2004, 328 pages 
Among the most dramatic changes in American life in recent decades has been the changing role of women in society. With this comprehensive study of gender equality debates in the party system from 1968 to 2000, Democrats, Republicans, and the Politics of Women's Place reveals the impact that these changes have had on the political parties. It brings new theory, data, and analyses to bear on the questions of party politics, electoral realignment, and the women's movement.  Order from Amazon and a percentage of the profits from the sale goes to CAWP.

Candidate Recruitment and Women's Election to the State Legislatures
Kira Sanbonmatsu
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2003, 47 pages
This report points out that where women run is a critical but overlooked question in studies on women’s successes in running for office. The report finds that candidate emergence and recruitment differs across states. To varying degrees, party recruitment, beliefs about women’s electability, interest groups, and the presence of women legislators, women leaders, and women’s organizations in a state all play a role in the likelihood of a woman running for the legislature.

Gender, Political Ambition, and the Initial Decision to Run for Office
Richard L. Fox
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2003, 14 pages
This CAWP-funded report presents the results of the first broad-based national sample of potential men and women candidates. Richard Fox sheds light on how women and men think about running for office and the manner in which their attitudes will affect the future prospects of gender parity in U.S. governing bodies.  Fox concentrates his research on factors such as age, party affiliation, personal income, external support, and notoriety.  Fox is associate professor of political science at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. 

Gender Differences in Print Media Coverage of Presidential Candidates: Elizabeth Dole's Bid for the Republican Nomination
Caroline Heldman, Susan J. Carroll, and Stephanie Olson
American Political Science Association, 2000, 15 pages
This report examines Elizabeth Dole's bid for the Republican presidential nomination and the ways in which gender bias affected media coverage.

Women as Candidates in American Politics
Susan J. Carroll
Indiana University Press, 1994, second edition, 264 pages
This book examines political parties' recruitment of women candidates, the factors that affect the outcomes of women's primary election campaigns, the future officeholding ambitions of women candidates, and women candidates' views on women's issues. The study is based on a nationwide survey of women who ran as major party candidates for congressional, statewide, and state legislative offices in 1976. Order from Amazon and a percentage of the profits from the sale goes to CAWP.

Women Candidates and Their Campaigns: A Bibliography
1985, 22 pages
Includes listings on: general works on women candidates and their campaigns; background and recruitment of women candidates; voter reactions to women candidates; public opinion and the gender gap; financing of women's campaigns; and women's campaign organization and decision-making.

Women Make a Difference
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 1983, 48 pages
Selected findings from CAWP's studies are highlighted in this monograph. A key theme is the difference women can and do make as elected and appointed public officials. The report outlines steps which may be taken to expand women's participation in politics, focusing on those findings which are relevant and useful for women interested in seeking public office and for people who conduct programs to increase women's numbers in public life.

Women's Routes to Elective Office: A Comparison with Men's
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 1983, 223 pages
Based on data collected through surveys of women and men elected to state legislatures, county governing boards, and municipal offices, this report examines the factors which influence women's entry into elective offices. A major section focuses on black women's routes to elective office.

Not One of the Boys
1984
This 60-minute documentary film produced by CAWP examines the progress women are making and the obstacles they encounter after more than a decade of increased involvement in political life. The film focuses on 1984 as both an ordinary and an extraordinary year for women in American politics. It appeared on the PBS series Frontline and is on DVD for sale or rental from CAWP. (Purchase from CAWP for $10)

Political Women Tell What It Takes
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 1983, 37 pages
This report presents information CAWP gathered at six consultations held with women public leaders in 1981 and 1982. It focuses on the roles which political parties, women's organizations, and individual women have played in recruiting and supporting women candidates and appointees.

In the Running: The New Woman Candidate
Ruth B. Mandel
Beacon Press, 1981, paperback 1983, 280 pages
This book describes the emergence of women as candidates for elective office in the United States in the 1970s. Using a journalistic perspective, it analyzes the campaign experiences of women who are running for federal, state, and local offices across the country. Order from Amazon and a percentage of the profits from the sale goes to CAWP.