Federal Executive


Women in Presidential Cabinets
A listing of current and past women presidental cabinet officials.

High-Level Presidential Appointments
List includes cabinet or cabinet-level positions, U.S. Supreme Court and other high-level positions.

Women Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates
Fact sheet on all women who have run for U.S. president and vice president.

Aiming High: Women Pursuing the Presidency
A Google Cultural Institute exhibit conveying the history of American women seeking the nation's highest office in images and video. 



Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 1st Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2005 First Edition, 240 pages 

Gender and Elections offers a systematic, lively, multi-faceted account of the role of gender in the electoral process through the 2004 elections. This volume strikes a balance between highlighting the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2004 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. 

CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

‘She Brought Only a Skirt:’ Gender Bias in Newspaper Coverage of Elizabeth Dole’s Campaign for the Republican Nomination

by Caroline Heldman , Susan J. Carroll & Stephanie Olson
Political Communication 22:3 (2005)

This article examines differences in print media coverage of Elizabeth Dole and five other Republican contenders for the presidential nomination in 1999. Findings indicate that Dole received a differential amount and type of print media coverage that was decidedly gendered and may have hindered her candidacy. Journalists also repeatedly framed Dole as the “first woman” to be a serious presidential candidate and focused on her gender more than any other aspect of her candidacy, suggesting implicitly, if not explicitly, that she was a novelty in the race rather than a strong contender with a good chance of winning.

CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Federal Executive

Women Appointed to the Carter Administration: A Comparison with Men

by Susan J. Caroll and Barbara Geiger-Parker
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 1983, 88 pages

This first-ever profile of women who have held high-level appointive offices at the federal level analyzes data about all the women and a sample of the men who served in high-level appointed positions under President Jimmy Carter. Women who served in selected positions on the president's and vice-president's staffs are also included.

CAWP Scholar
Women Political Appointees
Federal Executive